Tag Archives: equipment

Free Internet Node, Part 2 – Setting up the Internet Node PC

If the PC you have selected to be your “Internet Node” is not already hooked to the Internet, you should take the steps many other people have to get it permanently attached with a static IP address. Because of their reasonably high speed and low-cost, I recommend interfacing through either cable or DSL with either a cable modem or DSL modem, respectively.

I recommend Windows XP as your operating system since older versions of Windows simply do not have the reliability or the security, especially with the release of SP2 for Windows XP. Windows Vista is too new, and many experts suggest waiting until late 2008 before using a Windows Vista machine as a reliable server. The last thing you want is to have your Internet node compromised and shut down because a hacker used a vulnerability in your PC.

Some experts suggest running Internet services on Linux boxes (computers) which they consider more streamlined and less prone to attack, and that is okay if you have the experience and expertise. However, my purpose here is to show how to transform an “ugly duckling PC” into an “Internet node swan,” and Windows is what most PC users are familiar with.

I leave it up to you to decide if you need Windows XP Professional over XP Home. I use both, and they both seem to operate equivalently for our Internet purposes here. XP Pro is more tweakable and has additional features, but none of that is necessary for a typical low-bandwidth node.

The absolute best way to set up Windows XP is to restore the factory image of your PC harddrive from the Restore CDs that can with your PC. If you lean more towards being a PC expert, then you can clean up your PC, but please be thorough.

To clean up your PC, first remove any software you don’t want compromised, any financial spreadsheets, documents, etc. Then eliminate all extraneous software that you won’t be using through their Uninstall procedure or Add or Remove Programs in your PC’s Control Panel. Run ScanDisk, Defrag, and scan all of your drives with your antivirus software after making sure it’s virus list is up to date. You should also run anti-spyware software to make sure that your PC hasn’t already been compromised by hackers.

Once you have your Internet Node PC cleaned-up, you can verify your Internet speed to see if it is going to be able to handle the bandwidth you will require. A good rule of thumb is… If your bandwidth seems low, you might review some higher bandwidth services from your telephone or cable companies.

The next stop is to figure out what to do about your domain name, e.g. “yourdomain.com”. If you already have a domain name, then you will inform your current registrar about your IP address change, so that they can change your DNS Record. (If they cannot because they do not provide that service, you may have to switch registrars.)

What’s all that about the DNS Record? Well, the global Internic Registry used for decoding domain names into IP addresses does not, as some might assume, contain a direct pointer to your IP address but instead a pointer to a DNS Record that has the ability to direct the different services and sub-domains of your domain to unique IP addresses. Typically, your registrar maintains your DNS record for you and haven’t had to deal with it until now. Live and learn! Some registrars allow you to create your own DNS Record but will also do it for you through their customer support. If you want to learn how DNS Records work, it is certainly educational from a “how does the Internet work” perspective, but not a requirement for our task at hand.

If you do not have a domain name, now is the time to get one. First, choose a domain name you like and that you think will be easy for others to remember and use. Then, sign-up your new domain using one of the registrars that are authorized to provide domain names. We recommend assign a domain name that ends with the top level domain “.com” unless you have grand reasons for using another (e..g. non-profits typically use “.org”). If your domain is already taken, the registrar will let you know and offer alternatives. You can go with one of those or iterate and pick another domain name to try and register.

There are many low-cost registrars that will sign-up a new domain name for under $15 a year, so don’t get suckered into paying $25 or even $35 a year. The last registrar I used was aplus.net which charged me $11.90 for a one-year registrar of a “.com” domain including DNS service. Note if the registrar you use changes extra for DNS service (or even provides it – some registrars do not) as you will need it in order to have your registrar point your domain to your IP address. Normally, if they host your site at one of their own IP addresses which by the way is a huge profit margin for them – we are bypassing this typical configuration.

Okay, so you have registered or transferred your domain or changed your domain’s DNS Record to that you can . Now the bad news: It is going to take up to 48 hours for your change to propagate through the DNS System so, when someone, including yourself, types in “www.yourdomain.com” in a browser, it is directed to your new IP address. Do you now have to wait for a day or two until you can access your services?

Checking and Setting Up the “hosts.” File

The answer is a definitive “no,” and you can keep going in setting up your Internet node even which your domain name addressing is in transition. First off, you can simply type in your Internet Node’s IP address and service port number to get to a service. But don’t do this yet as we haven’t installed and activated any services yet – we are saving that for the next installment.

Also, you can edit a file on one of your local network PCs that tells your PC to go locally, even to itself, when it sees particular domain names. This local redirection will work also on the Internet node PC you are setting up. This file is called the “hosts” file (actually the file name is exactly “hosts.” with a period and a blank extension) and is located somewhere in one of your Windows folders, somewhere in “c:\windows\…”.

You should use Window’s find feature to locate this file – search for the file “hosts.” starting in “c:\windows\” and include subfolders. On my Windows XP Home PC, the file is in my “c:\windows\system32\drivers\etc\” folder. Open it in Notepad or Wordpad. Wordpad is preferred since it remembers previously opened files in case you have to reedit.

There should be many lines starting with “#” that explain in a semi-obtuse way the use of the hosts file. Basically, all you need to do here is add a couple of line in the following format:

127.0.0.1 yourdomain.com
127.0.0.1 www.yourdomain.com

The IP address “127.0.0.1″ is one that means “this PC” and reroutes the specific domains right back to the current PC without attempting to go out over the Internet and resolve the domain name, which, as we know, is in transition. So, at least for the next few days, we will be working with this redirection and you can continue to set up your Internet services and test them out. Then, once your domain’s URL is relocated, your Internet services will be all ready to go without delay.

If, in your hosts file, you already have a line:

127.0.0.1 localhost

that is fine and you can leave that line there as well.

While we are on this topic, let’s do a little security review. Any other entries, lines that begin with an IP address (without the ‘#’) may be a hijack by a virus, spyware or hacker, so if you see anything that looks suspicious, you might want to check it out and delete it. For example,

254.22.172.14 citibank.com

is very likely a hacker intercepting the citibank.com domain and redirecting it to a phishing site in order to steal your citibank online ID and passcode. If you see anything like this, your PC was at least at one point compromised and may still be, so rerun all of your antivirus and anti-spyware software first making sure you have the latest updates. Even better, use alternate software to evoke a wider gamut of detection.

Next Up: Free Internet Node, Part 3 – First Free Internet Service: A Website

Free Internet Node, Part 1 – Equipment and Location Evaluation

Okay, let’s get started. Remember, I am going to describe my actual approach and make more general comments to cover slightly different hardware and approaches. Please feel free to chime in by adding comments. (By the way, we have a few what-should-be-obvious rules for posting comments.)

The first step I took in setting up my own Internet node was to evaluate my potential equipment and locations. Depending on the amount of traffic I might expect, I would require different bandwidths and therefore would need to set up my equipment and choose my location accordingly.

Given my estimated low load of, say, under a hundred or so hits per hour, I decided to locate the node at my residence on its existing DSL line, noting that I could always scale upwards in case my traffic takes off or I add what become a popular website. I determined that I could get by with my existing 512 kilobits per second DSL modem and one of my old PCs as the Internet node. (DSL lines can actually go up to 1.5 megabits per second depending on your DSL service. You can test the speed of your current DSL connection.)

For reasons having to doing with noise and power consumption, I switched over later to a new eMachines mini-tower PC which cost me around $250 at Best Buy after all the rebates came back. Here’s another eMachines pricing sample along with some specifications directly from eMachines themselves.

Anyway, just make sure whatever PC you use is less than a couple of years old and, preferably, running XP Home or Pro. You can upgrade not too old PCs without any big hassles. Not to promote Windows XP too much, however you can optimize your security access, benefit from XP’s advanced features, and add hardware with minimal effort. (You can use older PCs running older versions of Windows such as Win98, but the end results will be sub par and your security will only be slightly better than nil.) The PC should have at least 20 gigabytes of available space, use an Intel-based processor running at least 2 GHz, and be very quiet if it is going to be within earshot. The latest version of an eMachines PC that I bought easily met this criteria.

What about Windows Vista? It may work well actually, but we did all of our work on Windows XP, and we haven’t found a compelling reason to upgrade. From what we hear, Windows Vista is a different animal when if comes to PC operating systems and there are incompatibilities with some software packages. All it would take is one small module not working to put a serious damper on things. Anyway, the incompatibilities with using Windows Vista may diminish greatly after Microsoft’s final release of Service Pack 1 (SP1) which is scheduled for early 2008 (a release candidate is available now). Anyway, I may post a Windows Vista report later since that is the operating system most easily accessible today. For now, downgrade to XP or just buy a used PC with Windows XP on eBay.

So, with my existing equipment of an older tower PC and a DSL line and modem all of which could already access the Internet, I encountered my first dilemma. The typical $30 DSL line to a residence (such as through SBC) requires a log in. Until your equipment logs in, you do not have an IP address. And should you have to log off (or be forced off) for any reason and then sign back in, you will have a different IP address.

Web servers, email servers and ftp servers are best located on a static IP address, a permanent address on the Internet that never changes. With the low cost residential DSL line with a dynamically allocated IP address, you would have to change some network parameters each time your IP address changes. (I am being vague about the “parameters” as that would be a digression, and I do not want to lose focus right now.) While that is possible, it is a technical pain, and, depending on the reliability of your DSL provider and your telephone lines, you might have to change the parameters several times a month. Also, your node will be down until your equipment logs back in and changes its parameters, maybe a good part of a day.

Fortunately, I found that I could upgrade to a static IP address for an extra $25 a month. I feel that paying such a small fee to not have to deal with changing IP addresses. If you disagree, you can explore the dynamic IP address route with either DSL or cable modems and let me know how it works out for you.

The change from a dynamically allocated to a statically allocated IP address took less than 48 hours. Since I use a LinkSys router, I did have to switch it over from PPPoE to Static IP Addressing. Note: This step is different for different routers but is typically achieved using your browser to access your router’s parameters at your local URL address http://192.168.1.1.

Thusly, I was able to evaluate my existing equipment and location and found both acceptable with the one change to switch over to a permanent IP address. I estimate this effort took about four hours of my time, most of which was dealing with the phone company and the router.

Next Up: Free Internet Node, Part 2 – Setting up the Internet Node PC